Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2002, several: 57-66
Hydrolysis of Oils by Using Immobilized Lipase Enzyme: A Review Versus Ramachandra Murty*, Jayadev Bhat, and L. K. A. Muniswaran. Office of Substance Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, A Constituent Organization of Manipal Academy better Education (Deemed University), Manipal-576119, India Summary This assessment focuses on the application of immobilized lipase technology for the hydrolysis of essential oils. The importance of lipase catalyzed fat breaking process, the different immobilization methods, kinetics, deactivation kinetics, New immobilized lipases for chiral resolution, jet configurations, and process considerations are all analyzed and mentioned. Keywords: hydrolysis, enzyme immobilization, enzyme kinetics, deactivation kinetics, immobilized enzyme reactors, chiral compounds
IMPORTANCE OF LIPASE-CATALYZED FAT SPLITTING PROCESS
The production of fatty acids by the hydrolysis of natural oils and fats is definitely a important part in the economical exploitation of these naturally created renewable raw materials. These products include oils via corn, rapeseed, sunflower, hand, coconut, olives and rice bran, and a wide range of pet fats such as tallow's. An important number of high-value products require fatty acids in their manufactures. Such as coatings, adhesives, specially lubricating oils, shampoos and other personal care products. Natural oils and excess fat are a part of a group of compounds known as fatty esters or perhaps triglycerides, and their hydrolysis essentially involves reactions with drinking water to produce beneficial free fat and glycerol. There are 3 major tracks currently used for the hydrolysis of excess fat and natural oils in the production of essential fatty acids; high pressure steam splitting, alkaline hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The warm and pressure (typically 250В°C, 70 bar) necessary for vapor splitting make this process unsuitable for dividing sensitive triglycosides, unconjugated systems (which may possibly undergo thermal degradation), hydroxylated fats and oils (which may dehydrate) or polyunsaturated oils with high iodine number (which may polymerize). There are also difficulties associated with alkaline hydrolysis, particularly high energy costs and the ought to acidify the soaps formed, to produce the fatty acid items. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides may be performed at normal conditions (typically 35В°C and atmospheric pressure), making it cost effective in comparison to the heavy steam splitting method. In this technology an aqueous solution of lipase is contacted with the oil, developing a the liquid вЂ“liquid dispersion. The lipases are en* Corresponding author Tel: +91-08252-571061 Fax: +91-08252-571071 e-mail: [email protected] com
zymes that particularly catalyze the hydrolysis with the oils in free essential fatty acids and glycerol at the user interface between the two liquids. The hydrolysis response yields 1mole of glycerol and 3moles of essential fatty acids per skin mole of triglycerides. Triglycerides here at called " lipidsвЂќ, usually do not dissolve inside the water phase, so the response has to take place at the program of the drinking water and lipid phase . The products, fatty acids and glycerol, happen to be dissolve inside the lipid normal water phase respectively. As the response is invertable both the hydrolysis rate and the final formula depends on the essential fatty acid concentration inside the oil phase and on the glycerol focus in the water phase. The hydrolysis of oils and fats is a crucial industrial procedure: world wide 1 ) 6 Г— 106 plenty of fatty acids are produced annually by this procedure . Some industrial facilities in Japan already employ lipase pertaining to production of soap natural powder and creation of high purity unsaturated fatty acids . However the enzyme splitting method is not yet widely used for the reason that time for lipolysis of a sole batch is 2-3 days and nights, continuous digesting is challenging, and the price of chemical is large. For the sake of energy conservation and minimizing energy degradation of the...